写作基础 时间:2023-11-13





大多数中国考生的写作过程不是写作过程,而是翻译过程. Therefore, the ABC approach to improve the writing ability for IELTS candidates would be the application of the KISSable principle.

Keep It Short and Simple.

Please remember, in any language available now, there are basically two types of information involved in the communication process. Namely:



Action is actualised by verbs, while State is shown by nouns, adjs or prepositional phrases.

It is strongly recommended that beginners of English writing start their practice by using this KISSable approach. Please heed the following examples:



由于大多数雅思考生的汉语思维和汉语的语言能力已经达到了成人的水平,在翻译写作过程中出现了现有的英文水平对付不了比较复杂的汉语思维所产生的"中文信息,从而导致有想法没办法,有思路没门路的尴尬情况。所以刚刚开始练习的考生可以把自己想法中的主要信息挑出来,分成是动作还是状态两种类型,使用简单的主+谓+结构;或者主+系动词+表语的模式来练习写作。 比如上文所提的例子:

Science and technology have altered our daily life.




一、主语:句子的核心主体,通常位于谓语动词之前,表明一个句子是谁或何种情况所发出执行或是承受的。在写作中常做主语的有名词、代词、主语从句、V-ing、To do五种。

1名词:Computersare now being widely used in almost all fields.

2代词:Weare now living in an information-explosion era.

3主语从句:Whether sports stars should earn a high salaryis still discussed heatedly.

4V-ing:Surfing the Internetoffers a new way for people to relax themselves.

5To do:To protect the environmentis everybody’s business.


1表状态用系动词:As I see it, movie stars’earning a high salaryisunfair and unjustified.

2表动作用及物或不及物动词:The Internethas revolutionizedpeople’s way of life. Tastediffers.

3表拥有:人或物时用:have has无生命的东西:there be

Peoplehavedifferent views on this question.

There isno absolute agreement on this question.


In this way, teacherscan never be replacedby computers.

三、宾语:及物动词或介词所指向的对象。在写作中常做宾语的有名词、宾语从句、复合结构、V-ing、To do五种。

1名词作宾语:International tourism promotesthe economic development.

2宾语从句作宾语:Some people holdthat air travel should be restricted.

3复合结构:The advanced medical technology has madeit possible for people to live longer than ever possible before.

4 V-ing: Nobody can avoidbeing influencedby media.

5 To do: Some people wantto work for a big companywhile others chooseto work for a small one.

四、表语:接在系动词后,补充说明主语的情况又称为主语补足语。在写作中常做表语的有名词、形容词、V-ing、To do、从句五种。

1名词:The environmental problem isa serious problemin modern society.

2形容词:Time isfleetingand art islong.

3V-ing: The argument isconvincing.

4To do: A possible solution isto set down effective laws.

5从句:One advantage of computers’utilized in education isthat they can enrich the traditional teaching method to a great extent.

五、定语:修饰名词或类似于名词的词。一般翻译为“……..的”,表示事物性质或状态,分为前置或后置。在写作中常做定语的有形容词、名词、V-ing、To do、从句五种。

1形容词:Taking part-time jobs exertsprofoundimpacts on one’s future career development.

2名词:Generationgap is now a problem we have to face.

名词做定语(名词修饰名词重要原则:第一个名词一般用单数 以下为雅思写作常用名词修饰名词词组)

1 Information technology

2 Information center

3Credit card

4Generation gap

5Beauty contest

6Communication skills

7Information age

8Knowledge economy

9Peace talks

10Service industry

11Water scarcity

12Survival skills

13Press conference

14Safety standard

15Life insurance

16Weather forecast

17Reception desk

18Coffee break

19Body guard

20 Heart attack

21 Department store

22 Stock market

23 Office building

24 Science fiction

3 V-ing:Clearly, we are now living in anupdatingsociety and the world is now witnessing somebreath-takingchanges.

4To do: Studying abroad provides students with a good opportunityto experience a totally different culture.

5定语从句:That is a good bookwhich is opened with expectation and closed with profit.

六、状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整句的词或句。按照功能分十一种:时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式、条件、让步、比较、伴随、评注。在写作中常做状语的有副词 、状语从句 、状语从句省略结构 、To do、V-ing、V-ed


1副词 :Honestly, I cannot give a yes-no answer to this question.

2状语从句 :Where there is an open mind, there will always be frontier.

3状语从句省略结构 :If so, the conclusion still remains questionable.

4To do:To solve this problem, people think up various solutions.

5V-ing:Technology is developing by leaps and bounds,making it possible for people to live better than ever before.

6V-ed:Encouraged to do so, children will experience better development.

七、补语:主语补足语(补充说明主语的情况,又称表语)、宾语补足语(补充说明宾语的情况)在写作中常做宾语补足语的有形容词和To do 两种。

1形容词:Many people find this experienceawful.

2To do: Advertisements often urge peopleto buy goods they do not need.


1名词:We should learn from the past,the mirror of the present and the hope of the future.

2从句:University students should bear total expenses for their tuition on the generalizationthat university students usually earn much more than people without a degree.









7Luckily (或happily)for somebody,算某人幸运,




11Strange to say说也奇怪,

12 Needless to say不用说,

13Most important of all最为重要是,

13Worse still更糟糕的是,

14Ina few words(或in sum,in short)简而言之,

15Inother words换句话说




例子 1、

Air transport is increasingly being used to export many types of fruits and vegetables to countries where those plants can’t grow or are out of season. Some say that it is a good thing, but others consider that such use of air transport can’t be justified. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. 空运各种蔬菜和水果到不出产这些蔬菜水果的国家或者到这些东西已经过季了的国家越来越司空见惯,有人赞同,有人反对,请评价双方论点并给出自己的看法。




例子 2、Traffic and housing problems in major cities could be solved by moving large companies and factories with their employees to the countryside. To what extend do you agree or disagree? 交通和住房是城市的主要问题,把大公司和工厂及员工移到郊区可能解决该问题,你同意这样的看法吗?


该题目提出大城市交通堵塞和居住紧张问题,建议解决方案是把大公司和员工转移到郊区。根据我们的生活经验和知识,造成上述问题原因可能有很多,文中并没有提供任何证据说明大公司和其员工是造成问题的主要原因。考生可以提出一些其他原因证明这个解决方案可能不会奏效。这些原因可以是:交通设施落后old transport infrastructure、交通管理水平低下poor traffic control、城市人口增长过快 fast population growth、住房供应不足 inadequate housing supply等。如果考生不深入思考这个题目可能会提出类似以下错误论点:

The city, large corporate, and factories could suffer substantial financial loss because business operation is usually more difficult in faraway location than in the city.




例子 3:

Now many people think that we are spending too much money and time on protecting wild animals. The money should be better spent on human population. Do you agree or disagree? 目前很多人认为我们在保护野生动物上花费的太多,这些钱如果用在人身上会更好。你赞成还是反对?



有的同学在论述支持野生动物保护的论点中提到:Scientists have found that the body of certain kinds of animal contains genes that are similar to those of human beings and could be used to treat diseases in the future.


雅思写作Task 1和Task 2的时间如何分配?

雅思写作Task 2 的占分比例比Task 1高,难度和英语水平的要求都会较高。您花在Task 1的建议时间是20分钟而花在Writing Task 2的建议时间是40分钟。

但您也应留小量时间在最后阶段作最后检查。您并非必须先完成Writing Task 1才能开始Writing Task 2。









Writing Task 2的问题可分为两类,第一类问题需要以讨论形式回答,您需要讲出正反两面的论点和您自己的立场。您可设想这是一场辩论比赛,但您要为两方发言。您要写出足够的证据支持您的论点和反驳对立的论点。





1、题目和问题 - 要认清题目的要求和找出题目中想问的问题;

2、介绍 - 这是用来表达文章的大意,如果要写的是一篇评论文,笔者的方向也要在这里表达出来;

3、主体 - 如主体分为三段的话,通常前两段是您的观点和动手您的理由,后一段是用来平衡讨论的相反观点;

4、结论 - 会包括一点比较次要的观点。




一、such as与for example的混用

我们知道,在表示举例子的时候,such as与like是完全等同的,如:Wild flowers such as/like orchids and primroses are becoming rare。

但是同学们对于Such as、for example 的把握还是不够准确。我们都知道,后者接句子前者接词语表示举例子。于是就有了下面的写法:

There is a similar word in many languages, such as in French and Italian。

这里的such as改为for example为好,因为in French and Italian其实是there is a similar word in French and Italian的简化,所以要用for example来引出例证。再来看几个类似的例子:

It is possible to combine computer science with other subjects, for example physics。

二、assume 及claim 使用不够准确

我们知道, think,assume,claim是议论文中常用引出观点的动词。在实际作文中,同学们往往认为几个词的意思是一样的,完全可以代换,所以拿过来就用。甚至还有同学把consider也拿过来与之混用。我们首先还是从定义来看这几个词的不同:





比如:Anything which encourages language learning benefits society culturally and economically. 任何鼓励外语学习的事情有利于社会的文化和经济发展。这句话中的which 修饰不定代词anything。

再如:children spend much time watching TV,which gives rises to many health problems like obesity and poor eyesight.小孩花大量时间看电视,这样会引起很多健康问题,比如肥胖症以及视力下降。这里的which就在修饰其面整句话(children spend much time watching TV.)



1:如果定语从句修饰名词,而且定语从句的谓语动词是be动词,也就是N 关系代词BE 形式,这个时候我们可以把关系代词+be动词省略


A vast majority of people who are invited to the party are well-known scientists.

我们就可以把who are省略,改为:A vast majority of people invited to the party are well-known scientists.


Employees who are from rural areas will confronted with many problems in major cities.(定语从句做定语)

Employees from rural areas will confronted with many problems in major cities.(介词短语做定语)

The number of students who cannot attend university is decreasing.

The number of students who are unable to have access to tertiary education is decreasing.

The number of students unable to have access to tertiary education is decreasing.(形容词短语做后置定语)


Television which has been as one of the most fascinating inventions in the 20th century is now penetrating into every family.

Television, one of the most fascinating inventions in the 20th century, is now penetrating into every family.(同位语)


2:如果出现“名词关系代词实意动词”,这个时候我们可以替换为:n doing sth 形式。


Education, which helps children develop their thinking and accumulate their knowledge , is a deciding factor of one"s success.

Education,helping children develop their thinking and accumulate their knowledge , is a deciding factor of one"s success.

We told them they were the victims who deserved sympathy the most.

We told them they were the victims deserving sympathy the most


A-非谓语结构做状语: SVO, (thus)doing sth

B-概括性同位语: SVO,a/an 概括性名词that SVO


children spend much time watching TV,which gives rises to many health problems like obesity and poor eyesight.

children spend much time watching TV, giving rises to many health problems like obesity and poor eyesight.

children spend much time watching TV,a bad habit that gives rises to many health problems like obesity and poor eyesight.




1. You are an university student who are living in the accommodation at the campus. One day you find something wrong with your accommodation. So you write a letter to the House Officer to tell them what happened, the reason you think, what you decide to do, and whether if it is right.

2. It is wrong that our government pay more money to the artist projects, for instance, there are more and more paintings and sculptures appearing at the public places, because there are more important thing to do. What"s you opinion? Do you agree or disagree with it?

3. writing to an English speaking college about qualification, accommodation, fee, what courses do you want to choose and why.

4. Participating in a sport is as important for psychological health as it is for physical condition and social development.

5. You have left college. But you didn"t say goodbye to your friend who live in the room with you because he had a course at that time. Write a letter to him to appology and tell hem how you spend that days before you leave and how you get home. Then invite him to visit you.

6. Some people say the parents should except school to conduct their children"s behavior and tell them what is "right" or "wrong". Others say schools should take this responsibility. Please give your point about it.

7. Write to the agency officer and complain about the rent car which has sth wrong. Tell them the problems of the car you rent from the agency and your requiring.

8. As the developing countries and the third world countries, there are a funds, how to use it? Invest in the basic education or in the high-technology, for instance, computer? What"s your opinion?

9. You are a foreign student. Write to the Student Union, introduce your hobbies and interests and ask information of clubs and societies. You want to join a club or society enjoy your time when you study there.

10. Fast food is developing more and more popular. It replaces other traditional food. Some people think it is good, some people disagree with it. What"s your opinion about it. Give some reason of your opinion.

11. A friend will visit Beijing. You will meet him at airport. But for some reason, you have to be late. Explain the reason. Since you haven"t meet each other, tell the friend where you will meet and how to recognize each other.

12. More and more children"s writing & math ability are affected by computers and calculators. We should limit the use of those tools. Disagree or agree.

13. you have broke your leg and have to stayed in hospital. you received many cards and letters from your classmates. write a letter to tell them your detail of your position and thank them at the same time.

14. some people say that it is impossible for women to be an effective women and to be a good mother in home at the same time. they also suggest that the government should give the salary to mothers who stay at home to take care of their children.

15. Your friend write to you and tell you that he is hesitating to chose computer or history as his major in university. Write to him and tell him your opinion.

16. Participating in a sport is as important for psychological health as it is for physical conditions and social development.

17. You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because he or she always has friends visiting. They have parties in the room and sometimes borrow your things without asking you. Write a letter to the Accommodation officer at the college and ask for a new room nest term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reason.

18. Who has responsible for our old people?

19. Write to the agency officer to complain about a rent house by them. Tell them the problems of the house and your requiring.

20. You read an ad about a sale of a shop in the local newspaper, when you came to buy the goods you wanted, you find the sale had ended. Write to the shop manager and complain about this. Require for the compensation.

21. Write to an English speaking college about qualification, accommodation, fee, what courses do you want to choose and why.

22. You are accepted as an oversea student by an university. Before you go to the university, write to the student officer and ask them sth about the accommodation, the transportation,and the class schedule.

23. You are a history teacher at a high school. You see an ad at the local newspaper to introduce the local museum which coincidens with what you teach now. Write to the museum officer and tell them that you want to bring your students to visit it.

24. Write a letter to your friend and express thanks for his present which was brought to you during you were ill at the hospital.

25. The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What do you think? Give reasons for your answer.

26. The threat of nuclear weapons maintains world peace. Nuclear power provides cheap and clean energy. The benefits of nuclear technology far outweigh the disadvantages. Give reasons for your answer.

27. People can do longer expect a job for life. What should individuals and governments do to prepare the current and future environments for different working conditions?

28. As technological innovation brings about rapid changes and retraining becomes a lifelong necessity, industry should take over more and more of the responsibility for education.

29. It is more important for governments to ensure adequate standards of housing, education and health care for their citizens by developing the industrial base than to use their resources to develop the rural areas.

30. Business education and training today must promoter environmental awareness.

31. Whilst studying abroad provides an opportunity to broaden one"s experience, it also presents the danger of negative influences from the host culture.

32. Technological advances continue to improve manufacturing efficiency; the weight of a drinks can has come down from thirty-five grams to about fifteen grams, for example, and modern cars and production techniques are much more energy efficient. Governments need to control the environment rather than controlling industry, as companies already control their resources very efficiently.

33. Training for work is far more important than proving a broad-based education.

34. What steps should a student take in preparing for tertiary education and what would be the benefit of taking such steps?

35. The developed world should lead by example and not insist that aid to the Third World is used to develop rural areas.



































It will rain tomorrow.

He often runs in the morning.

They cried.

Tom exercises every day.



I miss my mother very much.

She wants to go home now.

The English club is going to hold an English party.

They all love her.



The music sounds wonderful.

The leaves have turned red.

She is a student.

We keep silent about that.



The teacher gave a book to him.=The teacher gave him a book.

They told me an interesting story.

The waitress offered me a bottle of wine.

My father will buy me a bike.=My father will buy a bike for me.

Miss Smith teaches us English.


主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾语补足语:                                      S+V+O+C

They call me Xiao Wang.

I saw him swimming in the river.

We elected him monitor of the class.